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An account is given of the Central Laser Facility's work to produce a cryogenic hydrogen targetry system using a pulse tube cryocooler.
Due to the increasing demand for low Z thin laser targets, CLF in collaboration with TUD have been developing a system which allows the production of solid hydrogen membranes by engineering a design which can achieve this remotely; enabling the gas injection, condensation and solidification of hydrogen without compromising the vacuum of the target chamber.
A dynamic sealing mechanism was integrated which allows targets to be grown and then remotely exposed to open vacuum for laser interaction.
Further research was conducted on the survivability of the cryogenic targets which concluded that a warm gas effect causes temperature spiking when exposing the solidified hydrogen to the outer vacuum.
This effect was shown to be mitigated by improving the pumping capacity of the environment and reducing the minimum temperature obtainable on the target mount.
The system was delivered experimentally and in July the first laser shots were taken upon hydrogen targets in the Vulcan TAP facility.
Fabrication and characterization of thin polymer targets for laser-driven ion acceleration. Varying the concentration of the polymer solution was found to be the most efficient way to control resulting foil thickness.
Both interferometric microscopy and energy loss of alpha particles were used for characterization and found to yield agreeing results.
For an experiment on laser-driven ion acceleration, these films were used as targets and as substrates for cryogenic hydrogen targets.
Accelerating ions with high-energy short laser pulses from submicrometer thick targets. Using the example of the PHELIX high-energy short pulse laser we discuss the technical preconditions to investigate ion acceleration with submicrometer thick targets.
We show how the temporal contrast of this system was improved to prevent pre-ionization of such targets on the nanosecond timescale.
Furthermore the influence of typical fluctuations or uncertainties of the on-target intensity on ion acceleration experiments is discussed.
We report how these uncertainties were reduced by improving the assessment and control of the on-shot intensity and by optimizing the positioning of the target into the focal plane.
Finally we report on experimental results showing maximum proton energies in excess of 85 MeV for ion acceleration via the target normal sheath acceleration mechanism using target thicknesses on the order of one micrometer.
Simultaneous observation of angularly separated laser-driven proton beams accelerated via two different mechanisms. We present experimental data showing an angular separation of laser accelerated proton beams.
For the best match of laser and target conditions, an additional proton signature is detected along the laser axis with a maximum energy of 65 MeV.
These different beams can be attributed to two acceleration mechanisms acting simultaneously, i. Laser driven ion acceleration offers a promising tool to either directly diagnose high energy density matter HEDM with high temporal and spatial resolution or indirectly by the generation of secondary neutron radiation which can be used as complementary diagnostic.
Especially with scope on future applications at FAIR the complementary neutron diagnostic of dense matter, e. Based on this, increased conversion efficiencies, the efficient acceleration of heavier ions as well as the acceleration of protons far beyond MeV are possible.
In the context of our poster we will introduce the theoretical background and physics of the BOA mechanism. All theoretical discussions are accompanied by highly resolved particle-in-cell PIC simulations in order to communicate a basic picture behind BOA.
We will present first experimental results on the generation of secondary neutrons by the BOA mechanism and will compare and interpret the results with PIC and MonteCarlo simulations.
Breaking the 70 MeV proton energy threshold in laser proton acceleration and guiding beams to applications. The acceleration of protons and light ions such as carbon by the interaction of intense laser beams with solid targets has been studied for more than 10 years.
While the required energy of the laser has been reduced by an order of magnitude and the targets have been optimized no experiment has exceeded energies around 70 MeV for protons in such experiments.
With respect to the outstanding qualities of those laser accelerated ion beams, especially the low emittance, which allows for transport and focusing, many applications have been proposed.
Recently new accelerating mechanisms have been proposed relying on the increasing laser intensity available with modern systems. The mechanism relies on the relativistic transparency of solids and has been first discovered experimentally at the LANL Trident laser system.
Here, several attempts have been taken in the past and the most promising results obtained with the use of small permanent-magnetic quadrupole devices [3,4] or pulsed high-field solenoids [5,6].
High energy ion acceleration and neutron production using relativistic transparency in solids. Archbishop Engelbert II in Solingen. King Wilhelm I in Stuttgart.
Duke Eberhard I in Stuttgart. Grand Duke Karl August in Weimar. Reiter über den Bodensee in Überlingen.
Emperor Wilhelm I in Wuppertal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of equestrian statues by country. Memorial to Tanzhusaren in Krefeld. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it.
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Saint George defeats the Dragon. Emperor Wilhelm I by Fritz Schaper , , destroyed in Kyffhäuser Monument with Emperor Wilhelm I.